Autograf 8.2 - forrige | nęste


1. measures of mortality
 
the purpose of measuring mortality is to enable inferences to be drawn about the likelihood of death occurring within a specific population during a specific period of time
 
general or specific
 
while past experience is used as a basis for estimating future changes in the population at risk, uncertainty about some of the factors compels the actuary to introduce margins of safety
 
uncertainty compels
 
the population at risk in most vital statistical calculations is the mean population of the area over the period to which the rate relates
 
the shorter the interval, the more likely it is that the rate will be influenced by some epidemic occurrence or a spell of particularly inclement weather
 
the longer life be, the greater is the guilt ­ the days, the months and years
 
where small numbers of deaths occur, chance fluctuations are likely to be relatively large
 
after the newborn infant has survived the hazards of the first few days of life, during childhood the risk of death is very small
 
adolesence, the impact and strain of industrial life, tenderness and violence
 
at later stages the wearing out of the human frame
 
ungainly and ugly
 
and at the end of the day
 
weary with sloth
 
generations have progressed towards this ideal
 
from one age to the next
 
and the future is immaterial
 
let us take stock
 
ethnic factors
 
...
 


5. social and economic factors in mortality
 
The main difficulties in measurement are
 
the things which we cannot say
 
we are concerned with a broad spectrum of elements which determine man's interaction with external conditions
 
subnutrition
 
quantitative deficiencies
 
well-being
 
over-feeding and obesity
 
number of deaths from each cause by age and sex in each occupation
 
by duration - days, months and years
 
relative population at risk
 
ages 15-64
 
the longer life be
 
standardization
 
everywhere it is so
 
males, single women and married women
 
a very crude diagnostic tool
 
one of the strongest influences militating against health in the past has been the increasing gravitation of the population into crowded cities
 
he who chases after trivial things
 
many of the worst elements of town life have been removed or mitigated by enlightened local goverment and by the general rise in standards og hygiene in the day to day life of the community at large
 
because we do want to live
 
urban-rural differential, closeness and distance
 
in so far as housing conditions directly affect health, they normally do so by affecting the incidence of infectious disease
 
health is not only related to bricks and mortar
 



climate
 
those in professional and managerial employment have lighter mortality than unskilled workers. The former are also better educated, in health and in all matters, than the latter
 
deprives himself of freedom
 
except in relation to perinatal mortality
 
the failure of mortality at older ages in men to improve from one age to the next
 
identified cigarette smoking as the major cause of high mortality from lung cancer
 
principally over-eating and under-exercising ­ were shown to be associated with higher mortality from arterial heart-disease
 
one sorrow is followed by another
 
we have seen that the correlations between the various social, economic and cultural factors are so strong that it is dangerous and can be misleading to study any one in isolation
 
occupation
 
'social classes'
 
imitations of life
 
new 'socio-economic groups' were introduced by the General Rigister Office at the 1961 Census
 
(1) type of activity (active or inactive and in the latter event the type of inactive group, e.g. hospital immate, housewife, ect.); (2) occupation; (3) employment status (employer, manager, etc.); and (4) branch of economic activity (industry)
 
socio-economic groups
 
given a sufficient degree of homogeneity, these groups provide a powerful tool for the study of social differentials in mortality
 
two-thirds of the adult population agreed 29-62 years was selected for observation
 
representative group of medical practitioners
 
they do not take us away from ill
 
my soul and this life


the days, the months and the years
 
thoughts grow turbid
 
and the cloud man's reasoning
 
the longer life be, the greater be the guilt
 
one's sorrow is followed by another
 
let us take stock, my soul, thou and I
 
what is past and what is present
 
it is nothing bur senseless fortuity
 
and the future is for me immaterial
 
no more and no less
 
everywhere it is so
 
he who chases after trivial things
 
deprives himself of freedom
 
and is left with ephemeral hopes
 
all that we cannot say
 
which grows from day to day
 
from one age to the next
 
becomes weary with sloth
 
ungainly and ugly
 
the things we cannot say
 
they do not take us away from ill
 
the immortal reward
 
all that we cannot say, those are the things which we must say
 
because we do want to live, even though we deride and maybe even despise life, we cling onto it and want in fact to keep it forever